Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) is a common disease of bees, which is frequently detected in apparently healthy colonies. ABPV has a single-stranded, positive-sense, polyadenylated RNA genome comprising 9,491 nucleotides (nt). It has been presumed that this virus plays a role in cases of sudden collapse of honeybee colonies infested with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (former name, Varroa jacobsoni).
ABPV is closely related to Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV). The three are dicistroviruses, often symptomless, and lethal at individual and colony level. ABPV, KBV, and IAPV are characterized by the ability to rapidly kill both pupae and adult bees.